German Art 1845 - 1945


© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
Fine art, architecture, sculpture, graphic art, and applied art of Germany and Austria 1845-1945


In the second half of the 19th century a number of styles developed in Germany and Austria, paralleling trends in other European counties, though the lack of a dominant capital city probably contributed to even more diversity of styles than in other countries.

Adolph Menzel enjoyed enormous popularity both among the German public and officialdom; at his funeral Kaiser Wilhelm II walked behind his coffin.
He dramaticised past and contemporary Prussian military successes both in paintings and brilliant wood engravings illustrating books, yet his domestic subjects are intimate and touching.
He followed the development of early Impressionism to create a style that he used for depicting grand public occasions, among other subjects like his Studio Wall.
Karl von Piloty was a leading academic painter of history subjects in the latter part of the century who taught in Munich; among his more famous pupils were Hans Makart, Franz von Lenbach, Franz Defregger, Gabriel von Max and Eduard von Grützner.
The term "Munich school" is used both of German and of Greek painting, after Greeks like Georgios Jakobides studied under him.
The Berlin Secession was a group founded in 1898 by painters including Max Liebermann, who broadly shared the artistic approach of Manet and the French Impressionists, and Lovis Corinth then still painting in a naturalistic style.
The group survived until the 1930s, despite splits, and its regular exhibitions helped launch the next two generations of Berlin artists, without imposing a particular style.
Near the end of the century, the Benedictine Beuron Art School developed a style, mostly for religious murals, in rather muted colours, with a medievalist interest in pattern that drew from Les Nabis and in some ways looked forward to Art Nouveau or the Jugendstil ("Youth Style") as it is known in German.
 Franz von Stuck and Max Klinger are the leading German Symbolist painters.
Another tendency is sometimes called 'Magic Realism', and included Anton Räderscheidt, Georg Schrimpf, Alexander Kanoldt, and Carl Grossberg.
Plakatstil, "poster style" in German, was an early style of poster design that began in the early 20th century, using bold, straight fonts with very simple designs, in contrast to Art Nouveau posters. Lucian Bernhard was a leading figure.

Art in the Third Reich

The Third Reich banned modern art, which they condemned as degenerate art (from the German: entartete Kunst).
According to National Socialist ideology, modern art deviated from the prescribed norm of classical beauty. While the 1920s to 1940s are considered the heyday of so-called 'modern art movements', there were conflicting nationalistic movements that resented abstract art, and Germany was no exception.
Avant-garde German artists were now branded both enemies of the state and a threat to the German nation. Many went into exile.
In July, 1937, the Third Reich mounted a polemical exhibition entitled 'Entartete Kunst '(Degenerate Art), in Munich; it subsequently travelled to eleven other cities in Germany and Austria.
The show was intended as an official condemnation of modern art, and included over 650 paintings, sculptures, prints, and books from the collections of thirty two German museums.
'Expressionism', which had its origins in Germany, had the largest proportion of paintings represented. Simultaneously, and with much pageantry, the Third Reich presented the 'Grosse deutsche Kunstausstellung' (Great German art exhibition) at the palatial 'Haus der deutschen Kunst' (House of German Art).
This exhibition displayed the work of officially approved artists such as Arno Breker and Adolf Wissel.
.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013




' Die Toteninsel'

'(The Isle of the Dead')
Arnold Böcklin - (1827–1901)

'Die Toteninsel' is the best known painting of Symbolist artist Arnold Böcklin .
Böcklin produced several different versions of the mysterious painting between 1880 and 1886.

All versions of Isle of the Dead depict a desolate and rocky islet seen across an expanse of dark water.
A small rowboat is just arriving at a water gate and seawall on shore.
An oarsman maneuvers the boat from the stern.
In the bow, facing the gate, is a standing figure clad entirely in white.
Just behind the figure is a white, festooned object commonly interpreted as a coffin.
The tiny islet is dominated by a dense grove of tall, dark cypress trees — associated by long-standing tradition with cemeteries and mourning — which is closely hemmed in by precipitous cliffs.
Furthering the funerary theme are what appear to be sepulchral portals and windows penetrating the rock faces.
Böcklin himself provided no public explanation as to the meaning of the painting, though he did describe it as “a dream picture: it must produce such a stillness that one would be awed by a knock on the door.”
The title, which was conferred upon it by the art dealer Fritz Gurlitt in 1883, was not specified by Böcklin, though it does derive from a phrase in an 1880 letter he sent to the painting’s original commissioner.
Many observers have interpreted the oarsman as representing the boatman Charon who conducted souls to the underworld in Greek mythology.
The water would then be either the River Styx or the River Acheron and his white-clad passenger a recently deceased soul transiting to the afterlife.

The model for the rocky islet was likely Pondikonisi, a small island near Corfu which is adorned with a small chapel amid a cypress grove.
(Another, less likely candidate is the island of Ponza in the Tyrrhenian Sea.)
The third version - and undoubtedly the best version -  was painted in 1883 for Böcklin’s dealer Fritz Gurlitt.
In this version one of the burial chambers in the rocks on the right bears Böcklin's own initials: "A.B.". 
In 1933, the painting was put up for sale, and a noted Böcklin admirer, Adolf Hitler, acquired it. He hung it first at the Berghof in Obersalzberg and, then after 1940, in the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin.




'Abundantia - The Gifts of the Sea'
Hans Makart




'Abundantia - The Gifts of the Earth'
Hans Makart




'Die Niljagd der Kleopatra' - 'Cleopatra's Nile Hunt'
Hans Markart





'Der Tod Der Kleopatra' - 'The Death of Cleopatra'
Hans Makart 
One of the favourite artists of the young Adolf Hitler was Hans Makart.
Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 – October 3, 1884) was a 19th-century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.
Makart's work, like those of other academic artists of the time, consisted of allegorical painting and history painting as seen in 'Catherina Carnaro', 'Dianas Hunt', T'he Entry of Charles V into Antwerp', 'Abundantia' (see above), 'Spring', 'Summer', T'he Death of Cleopatra' (see above), 'Cleopatra's Nile Hunt', (see above) 'The Five Senses', and 'Bacchus and Ariadne'.
He was considered the Austrian rival to the French William-Adolphe Bouguereau.
Within Austria, his nearest competitor was considered to be Hans Canon, and he was associated with the sculptor Viktor Tilgner, who travelled with him to Italy.
Aside from his clear influence on the academic art and high culture of Vienna at the time, Makart also influenced a range of painters and decorators who followed him, including many who rebelled against his style—the most notable being Gustav Klimt, who is said to have idolized him. Klimt's early style is based in historicism and has clear similarities to Makart's paintings. The entire decorative focus of Jugendstil, the Austrian Art Nouveau of which Klimt was a part, arose in an environment in which Makart had put the decorative aspects of art in the forefront. Some have also suggested that primacy of sexual symbolism in Jugendstil artworks were influenced by the sensuality in many of Makart's paintings.



Adolf Hitler viewing Markart's Paintings in Wien - 1937




Anselm Feuerbach - Selbstbildnis




'Das Urteil des Paris'
(The Judgement of Paris)
Anselm Feuerbach




'Nackte Junge mit einer Flöte'
(Nude Boy with a Flute)

One of the favourite artists of the young Adolf Hitler was Anselm Feuerbach.
Anselm Feuerbach (12 September 1829 – 4 January 1880) was a German painter.
He was the leading classicist painter of the German 19th-century school.
Feuerbach was born at Speyer, the son of the well-known archaeologist Joseph Anselm Feuerbach and the grandson of the legal scholar Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach.
After having passed through the art schools of Düsseldorf and Munich, he went to Antwerp and subsequently to Paris, where he benefited by the teaching of Couture, and produced his first masterpiece, Hafiz at the Fountain in 1852.
He subsequently worked at Karlsruhe, and then Venice.
In Venice, he fell under the spell of the greatest school of colourists, and several of his work demonstrate a close study of the Italian masters.
He then proceeded to Rome and then Vienna.
In 1873, he became professor in the Vienna Academy.
He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
He was steeped in classic knowledge, and his figure compositions have the statuesque dignity and simplicity of Greek art.
He was the first to realize the danger arising from contempt of technique, that mastery of craftsmanship was needed to express even the loftiest ideas, and that an ill-drawn coloured cartoon can never be the supreme achievement in art.





click here for more information about Adolf Hitler
and
'Hitler my young Friend' by August Kubizek




'DIE ABSCHEIDUNG' - (1874)

(THE DEPOSITION)

Arnold Böcklin - (1827–1901)

Alexander Frenz, Illustration zu Chamberlains Richard Wagner




Paul von Joukowsky - Parsifal - Die große Gralsszene, Gouache, 1882,




Paul von Joukowsky - Bühnenbildentwurf zu Parsifal - Gemälde ausgeführt von Max Brückner - 1882



Richard Wagner - Franz Von Lenbach - German Art




Hans Olde - 'Nietzsche on his Sickbed' - (1899)




Hans Olde - 'Frederiche Nietzsche' - (1899)





Max Liebermann - 'Bildnis Richard Straus





.
'SIGMUND FREUD'
Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)

.



'RICHARD  STRAUSS'
Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)

.



Ferdinand Schmutzer (1870-1928)

Schmutzer came from a traditional Viennese artistic family.
His great-grandfather, Jacob Matthias Schmutzer founded the Imperial Engraver-Academie in Vienna.
Like his grandfather and father worked, Ferdinand Schmutzer first with sculpture, but after studying painting at the Academy.
A study in the Netherlands woke influence of Rembrandt van Rijn, his interest in etching .
Soon Schmutzer was celebrated for his portraits of Viennese society.
Prominent contemporaries such as Sigmund Freud , Albert Einstein , Emperor Franz Joseph , the Vienna Philharmonic and Karl Lueger sat for him.
Schmutzer presented his work internationally and received several prizes and awards.
A particular innovation was the use of large formats which until then were unknown to the art of etching.
In 1901 Schmutzer became a member of the Vienna Secession, and by 1908 he was an acknowledged master of his art as professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
In addition to the large sizes, he introduced new techniques, experimenting with new types of needles. From 1922 to 1924 he was Rector of the Academy.
In 1928, at  58 years old, Schmutzer died in Vienna, in his villa.



George Jahn
.
.


.
'VERLORENES  PARADIES' - (PARADISE  LOST)
George Jahn
for more information about George Jahn (in German) go to http://georg-jahn-1869.de/





'BOYS ON THE BEACH'
George Jahn




'SELF  PORTRAIT'
Hans Thoma (1839 - 1924)

Hans Thoma (October 2, 1839 - November 7, 1924) was a well known and well listed German painter and print maker.
He started his life as a painter of clock faces.
In 1859 he entered the Karlsruhe Academy where he studied under Johann Wilhelm Schirmer (1825-1903) (specialist in landscape painting) and Ludwig des Coudres (1820-1878).
He left the Academy at the end of 1866 and moved to Dusseldorf.
There he met Otto Scholderer and went to Paris in May 1868.
In Paris he was influenced by Gustave Courbet (1831-1877). In spite of his studies under various contemporary masters, his art has little in common with modern ideas and is partly formed by his early impressions of the simple idyllic life of his native district, partly by his sympathy with the early German masters, particularly Altdorf and Cranach.
In his love of detail in nature, in his precise drawing of outline, and in his preference for local color, he has distinct affinities with the Pre-Raphaelites.
In 1890 he had his first successful exhibition at the Munich Kunstverein.
He subsequently joined the Munich succession.
In 1899 Thoma was made director of a gallery in Karlsruhe and was appointed professor at the art academy there. During his career he received many honors.





'DER  VERLORENE  SOHN' - (The Prodigal Son)
Hans Thoma (1839 - 1924)




'ADAM  AND  EVE'
Hans Thoma (1839 - 1924)





'SELF  PORTRAIT'
Joseph Uhl  -  (1877-1945)

Born in New York, Joseph Uhl moved to Germany at an early age.
At the Academy of Munich, he studied painting and etching.
As the First World War ended, Uhl who up to that time had concentrated mainly on painting, began to create etchings and engravings of children, nudes, general figure studies and allegorical images.
His work in this genre owes much to the German Jugendstil movement.




'MORNING  SWIM'
Joseph Uhl  -  (1877-1945)




'FLUTEBOY'
Joseph Uhl  -  (1877-1945)



'SOMMERWONNE' - (SUMMER  JOY)
Joseph Uhl  -  (1877-1945)




'STUDY  OF  A  NUDE  BOY'
Julian Alden Weir - (1852-1919)




'JUNGES  PAAR  AUF  LICHTUNG'
Hermann Moest, 1868 -1945

Born on 5 December 1868, in Karlsruhe, Germany, Moest was the son of the sculptor Karl Friedrich Moest 1838-1927).
After being instructed by his father, Moest solidified his knowledge and skills from 1885 to 1888 at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe.
After this he studied under Otto Seitz (1846-1912) and Alexander von Liezen-Mayer (1839-1898) at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich.
From 1914 he lived and worked in Berlin, becoming an established  figure painter and illustrator.Hermann Moest married on 1 October 1904 in Hannover, Emma Priscilla Benfey.
He died on 10 December 1945 in Berlin.




'AKT  MIT  BOGEN'
Hermann Moest, 1868 -1945





'AKT EPHEBE IN HELDENPOSE'
'NUDE  EPHEBE  IN  HEROIC  POSE'
Georg von Hoesslin (1851-1923)

George (Georg) von Hoesslin (1851-1923) is an interesting figure in art in view of his origins and study. German by heritage, but born in Hungary and educated in the United States, after his family emigrated to North America in 1856.
In 1870 he wanted to study art and returned to Europe (München) where he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts.
In München, (Munich), he trained under Wilhelm Lindenschmit (1829 -1 895), a German history painter. He traveled to Rome and Venice for additional studies later on.
In 1880 he returned to Boston, Mass.
He made return trips to München after his return to America.
His paintings are displayed in Museums in Boston (Museum of Fine Art) and in Europe.
This drawing is not signed but has von Hoesslin's estate stamp on the reverse and came from his estate (Nachlass George Von Hoesslin stamp on the reverse).
The drawing is probably a preparatory study for an historical painting, part of his oeuvre of portraits and historical paintings.


______________________________________


MAX KLINGER




'DER  ARBEND'  -  (The Evening)
Max  Klinger


Max Klinger (February 18, 1857 – July 5, 1920) was a German Symbolist painter, sculptor, printmaker, and writer.
Klinger was born in Leipzig and studied in Karlsruhe.
An admirer of the etchings of Menzel and Goya, he shortly became a skilled and imaginative engraver in his own right.
He began creating sculptures in the early 1880s.
From 1883-1893 he lived in Rome, and became increasingly influenced by the Italian Renaissance and antiquity.




'THE  JUDGEMENT  OF  PARIS'
Max  Klinger




'GÖTTER  IM  SURF'  -  (Gods  in  the  Surf)
Max  Klinger




'TRITON UND NEREIDE' - 1895
Max  Klinger




 'THE DEATH OF CAESAR'
Max Klinger


The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by approximately forty Roman senators who called themselvesLiberators.
Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in the Theatre of Pompey on theIdes of March (March 15) 44 BC.
Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuoby the Senate.
This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favour of tyranny.
The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and, ultimately, to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.




'BEETHOVEN'
Max  Klinger


______________________________________





'DIE  WASSERFRAU'  -  (The Lady of the Waters)
Hermann Prell (April 29, 1854 - May 18, 1922)




'THE LORELEI'
Edward von Steinle - (1810-1886)

Eduard Von Steinle (born Vienna, 2 July 1810; died Frankfurt, 19 Sept., 1886) was a historical painter and member of the Nazarene movement.
Steinle came successively under the influence of the painters Leopold Kupelweiser, Johann Overbeck, and Peter von Cornelius, and was thus introduced into the methods of the German painters who had formed themselves into a school in Rome, the Nazarenes.
Steinle went himself several times to Rome, but preferred to work in Germany.
He received his first large commission, the painting of the chapel of the Castle of Rheineck, while living in Frankfurt; a second one was for work in the Hall of the Emperors (Kaisersaal) in Frankfurt, where he painted the pictures of Albert I and Ferdinand III.
These commissions and his friendship with Philipp Veit and the Brentano family decided him to take up his permanent residence in Frankfurt.
From 1850 he was professor of historical painting at the Städel Art Institute of Frankfurt. Like his friend Schwind he was one of the painters of the Romantic School who were largest in their scope.
Like Schwind also he was probably more adept in the art of painting ordinary subjects. 
Besides his work at Rheineck he painted cycles of pictures in the Castle of Kleinheubach, in the Church of St. Aegidius at Münster, and in the Church of Our Lady in Aachen.
He also painted the groups of angels in the choir of Cologne cathedral, and did part of the work in the apse of the choir of the Minster in Strasbourg and in the imperial cathedral in Frankfurt.
He also painted frescoes showing the historical development of civilization on the stairway of the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in Cologne.
Among Steinle's smaller religious pictures are the enthroned Madonna holding the Child while an angel plays a musical instrument in front of them, the Visitation, the Holy Family at the Spring, Mary Magdalen seeking Christ, Christ Walking with His Disciples, the Legend of St. Euphrosyne, and the Great Penitentiary.
Among his paintings that are not directly religious are: the Warder of the Tower, the Fiddler, the Sibyl, the Lorelei (see above), and the pictures of the story of Parsifal; no less remarkable are his illustrations of Shakespeare, and especially those to accompany Brentano's writings.



'DER TÜRMER'
(The Tower Watchman)
Edward von Steinle - (1810-1886)




'Ein Wiederfinder'
Eduard Veith




'IM WALDE - DES KNABEN WUNDERHORN'
(In the Forest - The Boy's Magical Horn)
Schwind von Moritz - (1804-1871)

Moritz von Schwind (January 21, 1804 - February 8, 1871) was an Austrian painter, born in Vienna.
Moritz von Schwind received rudimentary training and spent a happy and carefree youth in Vienna. Among his companions was the composerSchubert, some of whose songs he illustrated.
In 1828, the year of Schubert's death, he moved to Munich, where he befriended the painter Schnorr and enjoyed the guidance of Cornelius, then director of the Academy.
In 1834 he was commissioned to decorate King Ludwig's new palace with wall paintings illustrating the works of the poet Tieck.
In the revival of art in Germany, Schwind held as his own the sphere of poetic fancy.
He decorated a villa in Leipzig with the story of Cupid and Psyche, and further justified his title of poet-painter with designs from the Niebelungenlied and Tasso's Gerusalemme for the walls of the castle of Hohenschwangau in Bavarian Tirol.
From the year 1844 dates his residence in Frankfurt during which he created some of his finest easel pictures, most notably the "Singers' Contest" in the Wartburg (1846), as well as designs for the Goethe celebration.
In 1847 Schwind returned to Munich on being appointed professor in the academy.
Eight years later his fame was at its height on the completion in the castle of the Wartburg of wall pictures illustrative of the "Singers' Contest" and of the history of Elizabeth of Hungary.
The compositions received universal praise, and at a grand musical festival in their honour, Schwind himself was one of the violinists.
In 1857 he visited England to report officially to King Ludwig on the Manchester art treasures.
So diversified were his gifts that he turned his hand to church windows and joined his old friend Schnorr in designs for the painted glass in Glasgow Cathedral.
Towards the close of his career, with broken health and his powers on the wane, he revisited Vienna. During this time, he created the cycle from the legend of Melusine and the designs commemorative of  chief musicians which decorate the foyer of the Vienna State Opera. Cornelius writes, "You have translated the joy of music into pictorial art."
Schwind's genius was lyrical - he drew inspiration from chivalry, folk-lore, and the songs of the people.
Schwind died in Pöcking in Bavaria, and was buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich.
The title 'Des Knaben Wunderhorn' was used by Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) for one of his song-cycles.



'ROSE'
Schwind von Moritz - (1804-1871)


______________________________________

LUDWIG VON HOFMANN




Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945) - working on his self-portrait

Ludwig von Hofmann (August 17, 1861 – August 23, 1945) was a German painter.
Born in Darmstadt, 1861, Ludwig von Hofmann first studied law in Bonn from 1880 to 1883.
He then commenced studies in art at the Dresden Academy (1883-1886) and in the master class of Ferdinand Keller (1886-1888).
In the following year, Ludwig von Hofmann enrolled at the Academie Julien, Paris.
There he was strongly impressed by the art of contemporary French painters, such as Puvis de Chavannes, Albert Besnard and Maurice Denis.
Ludwig von Hofmann returned to Germany in 1890 and settled in Berlin for the following thirteen years.
Ludwig von Hofmann's years in Berlin were very eventful.
There he was a founding member of both 'The Eleven' and the 'Berlin Secession'.
During this period, Hofmann was also a founding member of the influential arts periodical, Pan.
He contributed numerous illustrations to Pan, including the famous cover decoration.
As Ludwig von Hofmann's reputation grew, his circle of acquaintances and associates would include such masters of art and literature as Arnold Bocklin, Edward Munch, Max Klinger, Gerhard Hauptmann and Stefan George.
In 1898, none other than Rainer Maria Rilke dedicated two of his poems to Ludwig von Hofmann and his art.
In 1903, Ludwig von Hofmann accepted the post of Professor at the Archducal School of Art, in Weimar. During his years at Weimar, he devoted much of his time to painting commissioned murals.
Collectors of his art at this time included the Empress of Austria and the novelist, Thomas Mann.
He died in 1945.
His style was impressionist, and he painted many paintings, such as his well-known "Rain", in a mixture of impressionist and classical.




'FRÜHLING' - (SPRING)
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)




'Idyll'- 1896
 Ludwig Von Hoffman - (1861 - 1945) 





'NAKED  BOATMEN  AND  YOUTHS'
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)




'MALE  NUDE  STUDY'
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)





'ADAM IN PARADISICAL LANDSCAPE' - (detail)
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)





'FRUEHLINGSSTURM'
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)





 'STUDY - DIONYSIAN GROUP'
(Meadow Dance). Circa 1900
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861-1945)





'BADENDE  KNABEN'
Ludwig von Hofmann (1861 – 1945)




'BADENDE JUNGEN AM BACH'
(Boys Bathing in a Stream)
Max Pietschmann  - (1865-1952)





'MÄNNLICHER AKT IN HÜGELIGER BIRKENLANDSCHAFT'
R Kobel





'SELF  PORTRAIT'
Lovis Corinth - (1885 - 1925)

Lovis Corinth (21 July 1858 – 17 July 1925) was a German painter and printmaker whose mature work realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.
Corinth studied in Paris and Munich, joined the Berlin Secession group, later succeeding Max Liebermann as the group's president.
His early work was naturalistic in approach.
Corinth was initially antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities.
His use of color became more vibrant, and he created portraits and landscapes of extraordinary vitality and power.
Corinth's subject matter also included nudes and biblical scenes.





'CRUCIFIED  THIEF'
Lovis Corinth - (1885 - 1925)





"MARTYRDOM'
Lovis Corinth - (1885 - 1925)





"PARADISE' (1912)
Lovis Corinth - (1885 - 1925)




'DIE  JUGEND DES  ZEUS'  -  (The Childhood of Zeus)
Lovis Corinth - (1885 - 1925)




'STUDY OF A NUDE YOUTH'
Julius Christian Rehder - (1861-1955)




'IDYLLE'
Gustav Klimpt - (1862 – 1918)





'Pallas Athene'
Gustav Klimpt  - (1862 – 1918)

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.
His major works include paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects.
Klimt's primary subject was the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism—nowhere is this more apparent than in his numerous drawings in pencil
Klimt's work is often distinguished by elegant gold or coloured decoration, spirals and swirls, and phallic shapes used to conceal the more erotic positions of the drawings upon which many of his paintings are based. This can be seen in Judith I (1901), and in The Kiss (1907–1908), and especially in Danaë (1907). One of the most common themes Klimt used was that of the dominant woman, the femme fatale.
Art historians note an eclectic range of influences contributing to Klimt's distinct style, including Egyptian, Minoan, Classical Greek, and Byzantine inspirations.
Klimt was also inspired by the engravings of Albrecht Dürer, late medieval European painting, and Japanese Rimpa school.
His mature works are characterized by a rejection of earlier naturalistic styles, such as The Glasgow School, from which he was heavily influenced, and make use of symbols or symbolic elements to convey psychological ideas and emphasize the "freedom" of art from traditional culture.
He was keenly interested in exploring Freudian issues surrounding psychoanalysis in his works.
In his work Jurisprudence there is a focus on Freudian issues of sexual repression, and castration theory.
The three sirens in the painting look down at a withered man reproachfully, and he is shamed by his nakedness. The maw of the octopus is opened and level with the man's genitalia connoting some sort of castration. Freudian issues gave his work a dark intricacy that would be highly influential for future artists.


______________________________________


FERDINAND KELLER


'DER SEE'
(The Lake)
Ferdinand Keller - (1842-1922)

Ferdinand Keller (born 5 August 1842 in Karlsruhe; died 8 July 1922 in Baden-Baden) was a German painter.
He was educated at Karlsruhe. In 1857, he accompanied his father and brother to Brazil, and there sketched diligently from nature in the tropical forests until 1862, when he became a student of landscape painting under Schirmer in Karlsruhe, and of figure painting under Canon in Karlsruhe in 1863.
He studied in Rome from 1863 to 1867. In 1881, he was appointed director of the Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe.
He ranked among the chief representatives of colorism in Germany.
His works embrace Brazilian landscapes, allegorical and historical paintings and portraits. Among his sitters were members of the Imperial family.
He became more widely known through his successful competition for the painting of the curtain in the New Theatre at Dresden, which he executed in 1876.
Among other works are ‘Victory of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden over the Turks at Salankamen, 1691’ (1879), ‘Hero Finding the Body of Leander’ (1880), ‘Triumphal Progress of Pallas Athene before Elector Ruprect’ (1886, in the aula of the University of Heidelberg) and ‘Apotheosis of William the Victorious’ (1888).




'EIN KLASSISCHER LANDSCHAFT'
(A Classical Landscape)
Ferdinand Keller - (1842-1922)




'DAS GRAB VON BÖCKLIN'
(The Grave of Böcklin)
Ferdinand Keller - (1842-1922)


______________________________________


FRANZ VON STUCK



'SPIRIT  OF  VICTORY'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)

Franz Stuck (February 24, 1863 - August 30, 1928) was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.
Stuck was born at Tettenweis, in Bavaria.
From an early age he displayed an affinity for drawing and caricature. To begin his artistic education in 1878 he went to Munich, where he would settle for life.
From 1881 to 1885 Stuck attended the Munich Academy.
He first made a name with cartoons for Fliegende Blätter, and vignette designs for programmes and book decoration.
In 1889 he exhibited his first paintings at the Munich Glass Palace, winning a gold medal for 'The Guardian of Paradise'.
In 1892 Stuck co-founded the Munich Secession, and also executed his first sculpture, 'Athlete'.
The following year he won further acclaim with the critical and public success of what is now his most famous work, 'The Sin'. Also in 1893, Stuck was awarded a gold medal for painting at the Chicago World's Fair and was appointed to a royal professorship.
In 1895 he began teaching painting at the Munich Academy.In 1897 Stuck married an American widow, Mary Lindpainter, and began work designing his own residence and studio, the Villa Stuck.
His designs for the villa included everything from layout to interior decorations; for his furniture Stuck received another gold medal at the 1900 Paris World Exposition.
Having attained a high degree of fame by this time, Stuck was elevated to the aristocracy on December 9, 1905 and would receive further public honours from around Europe during the remainder of his life.
Even as new trends in art left Stuck behind, he continued to be highly respected among young artists in his capacity as professor at the Munich Academy.
Notable students of his over the years include Paul Klee, Hans Purrmann, Wassily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers.
Franz von Stuck died in 1928.




'SELF  PORTRAIT'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)




'CRUCIFIXION'
Franz  von  Stuck  -  (1844-1916)




'AMOR'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)




'NUDE  BOY  WITH  A  SWORD'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)





'REITENDE  AMAZON'  -  (Equestrian Amazon)
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)




'MEDUSA'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)





'FIGHTING AMAZON'
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)





'DIE SÜNDE' - 1893
(The Sin)
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)



 'DIEV WILDE JAGD'
(The Wild Hunt)
Franz von Stuck - (1863 - 1928)


______________________________________





DIE WALKÜRE

(The Valkyrie)
Alexander Rothaug (1870 - 1946)





At The Pond
Alexander Rothaug (1870 - 1946)


Alexander Rothaug (1870 Vienna - 1946 Vienna) was a very well known Austrian painter, stage designer, illustrator and graphic artist who was active during the late 19th - early 20th century.
In 1885-1892 he studied at the Vienna Academy and later in Munich. Rothaug began exhibiting around the year 1900 in Munich where he worked for a few years as an illustrator of the magazine "Fliegende Blaetter".
In ca. 1910 he moved back to Vienna.
Rothaug was strongly influenced by the works of Franz von Stuck.





'EUROPA UND DER STIER'
(Europa and the Bull)
Alexander Rothaug

In Greek mythology Europa was a Phoenician woman of high lineage, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken.
The name Europa occurs in Hesiod's long list of daughters of primordial Oceanus and Tethys.
The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; as Kerényi points out "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses. This can especially be said of the story of Europa".
The daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also named Europa.
Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, which is commonly dated to the 8th century BC. Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, discovered at Oxyrhynchus.





 'DIE KORALLENETTE'
(The Coral Chain)
Wilhelm Gallhof

Wilhelm Gallhof (1878 at Iserlohn - died in Action 1918) was a German artist who studied in Munich, Karlsruhe, and with Lovis Corinth in Berlin.
He worked in Weimar and Paris and was represented in many national and international exhibitions.
As a sculptor and graphic artist, he was equally successful and brilliant as a painter.
A reproduction of 'Die Korallenkette' appeared as a full page display in the German Magazine: Jugend (Youth), 1917, Volume II, No. 42, page 824/825).




'GEBURT DER VENUS
(Birth of Venus)
Alexander Frenz - (1861 - 1941)




'FEMALE NUDE'
Leopold Schmutzler 





'GIRL WITH SUNFLOWER'
Karl Truppe





'FEMALE NUDE IN THE OCEAN'
Karl Truppe




'STUDY  OF  A  NUDE  BOY'
Gottlob Wilhelm - (1867 - 1925)




"NUDE  BOY'
Sascha  Schneider - (1870 - 1927)

Rudolph Karl Alexander Schneider, commonly known as Sascha Schneider (21 September 1870 – 1927), was a German painter and sculptor.Schneider was born in Saint Petersburg.
In 1881, during his childhood, his family moved to Zürich.
After the death of his father, Schneider lived in Dresden, where he was a student at the Kreuzgymnasium. He studied art at Dresdner Kunstakademie beginning in 1889.
In 1903 he met best-selling author Karl May, and he became the cover illustrator of May's books (for example Winnetou, Old Surehand, Am Rio de la Plata).
When the First World War started, Schneider took up residence in Hellerau (near Leipzig).
After 1918, he co-founded an institute called Kraft-Kunst for body building.
Some of the models for his art works trained here.
Schneider, who suffered from diabetes mellitus, collapsed and died in 1927 in Swinemünde.
He was buried in the cemetery in Loschwitz, Germany.




'DAS  GEFÜL  DER ABHÄNGIGKEIT'
(THE  FEELING  OF  DEPENDANCE) - 1920
Sascha Schneider - (1870 - 1927)





'ZWEI  BADENDE  KNABEN'
Hans Wohrab - (1905-1978)




'KNABENAKT IM ATELIER'
(Nude Boy in Studio)
William Frederick George Pape (1859-1920)

William Pape (1859-1920) was a pupil of Herman Prell in Berlin, J. Lerebver and Benjamin Constant in Paris during the latter part of the 19th century.
He spent his career as an historical painter and illustrator.





'RECLINING  EPHEBE'
(Knabenakt - Nude Boy)
Andreas Bach (1886-1963)




'MALE NUDE STUDY'
Andreas Bach (1886-1963)






'STEHENDER NACKTER JUNGLING'
(Standing Nude Male Youth)
Theodor Krause (1868-1956)





 'BADENDE AM TEICH'
(Bathers at the Pond) - 1925
Martin Nicolaus (1870-1945)




'DAS GOLDENE TOR'
(The Golden Gate) - 1913
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





'DAS HEILIGE FEUER'
(Sacred Fire) - 1921
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)






'DER TEMPEL DES SCHWEIGENS'
(The Temple of Scilence)
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





 'ERDE UND SONNE - HIMMEL UND ERDE - BALDUR UND GERDA'
(Earth and the Sun Heaven and Earth - Baldur and Gerda) - 1921
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





'SCHICKSAL'
(Fate) 1917
 Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





'DIE HEILIGE STUNDE'
(The Holy Hour) - 1918 
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)





 'ODIN' (Allvater) - 1906
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)




'SELF PORTRAIT'
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867 – 1952)




'TOD DER BRUNHILDE'
Claudia Krieghoff Fraatz 

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
GOLGOTHA - (1933)
Johann Kluska - (1904 - 1973)

(digitally restored - the original paint surface is badly damaged)




 'DER SIEGER'
(The Victor) - 1897
Heinrich Carl Baucke (1875-1915)


__________________________________________________




© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio.
In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.

High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.
Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are flatter; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, the works of Leo von Klenze, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, DC in the United States. 


© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013



Glyptothek
München
Leo von Klenze - 1816 -1830

The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection ofGreek and Roman sculptures, (hence γλυπτο- glypto- "sculpture", from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein "to carve").
It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830.
Today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal.





Propyläen
München
 Leo von Klenze - 1862

The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis.
The gate was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, a son of the principal King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
The reliefs and sculptures celebrating the Bavarian prince and the Greek War of Independence were created by Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler.




Ruhmeshalle
München 
 Leo von Klenze




Regensburg Walhalla
 Leo von Klenze 1830 - 1842

The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history — politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue".
The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology.
It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I.
Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze.
The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history.





Regensburg Walhalla
Interior




Regensburg Walhalla
Colonade




Altes Museum
Karl Friedrich Schinkel - (1781 - 1841)

The Altes Museum  was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family's art collection.
The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel's career.
Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781, Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg – 9 October 1841, Berlin, Province of Brandenburg) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neo-gothic buildings.


_________________________________________________

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013

Die Neue Kunst
 
 
At the 1933 Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, the new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the dawn of an era of 'New Art' - and instituted the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture) to oversee the cultural life of Das Dritte Reich, (the Third Reich).
The Reichskulturkammer was headed by Dr. Paul Joseph Göbbels.
The Reichskulturkammer was to control all aspects of culture, and this included the fine arts, applied arts,  industrial design, sculpture, architecture and film.

On July 18, 1937, Hitler delivered a speech at the opening of the House of German Art in Munich, which was to take the place of the former "Glass Palace."
In the collapse of Germany after the war, he said, the economic decline had been generally felt, the political decline had been denied by many, the cultural decline had not even been observed by the majority of the people.
It was an age of phrases and catchwords: in the economic sphere the hard facts of misery and unemployment deprived these phrases of their force: in the political sphere such phrases as "international solidarity" had more success and veiled from the German people the extent of the political collapse.
But in the long run the failure of the parliamentary-democratic form of government, copied from the West - a West which regardless of this democratic form still continued to extort from Germany whatever there remained to extort - defeated the phrase-mongers.
Far more lasting was the effect of these phrases in the cultural field, where they resulted in a complete confusion concerning the essential character of culture.
Here the influence of the Jews was paramount and through their control of the press they were able to intimidate those who desired to champion "the normal sound intelligence and instinct of men," Art was said to be "an international experience," and thus all comprehension of its intimate association with a people was stifled: it was said that there was no such thing as the art of a people or, better, of a race: there was only the art of a certain period.
Thus it was not Greeks who created the art of Greece, Romans the art of Rome, etc. - a particular period had found in each art its expression.
Art is a "time-conditioned phenomenon."
So today there is not a German or a French art, 'but a "modern art."
This is to reduce art to the level of fashions in dress, with the motto "Every year something fresh" - Impressionism, Futurism, Cubism, perhaps also Dadaism.
These newly created art phrases would be comic, if they were not tragic.
The result was uncertainty in judgements passed on art and the silencing of those who might otherwise have protested against this Kulturbolschewismus, while the press continued to poison our sound appreciation of art. And just as in fashions one must wear "modern" clothes whether they are beautiful or not, so the great masters of the past were decried.
But true art is and remains eternal, it does not follow the law of the season's fashions: its effect is that of a revelation arising from the depths of the essential character of a people which successive generations can inherit. But those who do not create for eternity do not readily talk of eternities: they seek to dim the radiance of these giants who reach out of the past into the future in order that contemporaries may discover their own tiny flames.
These facile daubers in art are but the products of a day: yesterday, non-existent: today, modern: tomorrow, out of date. The Jewish discovery that art was just the affair of a period was for them a godsend: theirs could be the art of the present time.
Theirs was a small art - small in form and substance - and at the same time intolerant of the masters of the past and the rivals of the present.
There was a conspiracy of incapacity and mediocrity against better work of any age.
The new rich, having no judgement of their own in art matters, accepted these artists at their own valuation.
It was only an attraction that these works of art were difficult to understand and on that account very costly: no one wished to admit lack of comprehension or insufficient means!
And if one does not oneself understand, probably one's neighbor will not either, and he will admire one's comprehension of obscurity.
For this "modern art" National Socialism desires to substitute a "German" art and an eternal art.
This House of German Art is designed for the art of the German people - not for an international art.
"The people in the flux of phenomena is the one constant point.
It is that which is abiding and permanent, and therefore art as the expression of the essential character of the abiding people must be an eternal monument, itself abiding and permanent; there can be therefore no standard of yesterday and today, of modern or un-modern: there can be only the standard of 'valueless' or 'valuable,' of 'eternal' or 'transitory.
"And therefore in speaking of German art I shall see the standard for that art in the German people, in its character and life, in its feeling, its emotions, and its development."
From the history of the development of our people we know that it is composed of a number of more or less distinct races which in the course of millennia through the formative influence of a certain outstanding racial kernel produced that mixture which we see before us in Our people today.
This force which formed the people in time past and which still today continues that formative activity lies in the same Aryan branch of mankind which we recognize not only as the support of our own civilization but of the earlier civilizations of the ancient world.
The way in which our people was composed has produced the many-sidedness of our own cultural development, but as we look upon the final result of this process we cannot but wish for an art which may correspond to the increasing homogeneity of our racial composition, and thus present in itself the characteristics of unity and homogeneity.
Many attempts have been made through the centuries to define what "to be German" really means.
I would not seek to give an explanation in the first instance.
I would rather state a law - a law previously expressed by a great German: "To be German is to be clear," and that means that to be German is to be logical and true.
It is this spirit which has always lived in our people, which has inspired painters, sculptors, architects, thinkers, poets, and above all our musicians.
When on June 6, 1931, the Glass Palace was burned down there perished with it an immortal treasure of German art. The artists were called Romantics, and yet they were but the finest representatives of that German search for the real and true character of our people, for an honest and decent expression of this law of life divined by our people.
For it was not only their choice of subject which was decisive, but the clear and simple mode of rendering these sentiments.
Many of their original works are lost, we possess only copies or reproductions, but the works of these masters are removed by a great gulf from the pitiable products of our modern so-called "creative artists."
These masters felt themselves to be Germans, and consequently they created works which should be valued as long as there should be a German people to appreciate them.
But these modern works we would also preserve as documents illustrating the depths of that decline into which the people had fallen.
The "Exhibition of Degenerate Art" is intended as a useful lesson.
During the long years in which I planned the formation of a new Reich I gave much thought to the tasks which would await us in the cultural cleansing of the people's life: there was to be a cultural renascence as well as a political and economic reform.
I was convinced that peoples which have been trodden underfoot by the whole world of their day have all the greater duty consciously to assert their own value before their oppressors, and there is no prouder proof of the highest rights of a people to its own life than immortal cultural achievements.
I was therefore always determined that if fate should one day give us power I would discuss these matters with no one but would form my own decisions, for it is not given to all to have an understanding for tasks as great as these.
Among the plans which floated before me in my mind both during the war and after the collapse was the idea of building a great new exhibition palace in Munich; and many years ago I thought of the place where the building now stands.
In 1931 I feared that I should be anticipated and that the "men of November" would erect an exhibition building. Plans indeed were produced for an edifice.
But when we came to power in 1933 the plan had not been executed: the erection of the building was left to the Third Reich.
And the building is so unique, so individual, that it cannot be compared with anything else: it is a true monument for this city and more than that - for German art....
It represents a turning point, the first of the new buildings which will take their place among the immortal achievements of German artistic life.
But the House is not enough: it must house an Exhibition, and if now I venture to speak of art I can claim a title to do so from the contribution which I myself have made to the restoration of German art.
For our modern German state that I with my associates have created has alone brought into existence the conditions for a new, vigorous flowering of art.
It is not Bolshevist art collectors or their henchmen who have laid the foundations: we have provided vast sums for the encouragement of art, we have set before art itself great, new tasks.
As in politics, so in German art-life: we are determined to make a clean sweep of phrases.
Ability is the necessary qualification if an artist wishes his work to be exhibited here.
People have attempted to recommend modern art by saying that it is the expression of a new age: but art does not create a new age, it is the general life of peoples which fashions itself anew and therefore often seeks after a new expression.
A new epoch is not created by littérateurs but by the fighters, those who really fashion and lead peoples, who thus make history.
It is either impudent effrontery or stark stupidity to exhibit to the people of today works which perhaps ten or twenty thousand years ago might have been made by a man of the Stone Age.
They talk of primitive art, but they forget that it is not the function of art to retreat backward from the stage of development which a people has already reached: its sole function must be to symbolize that development.
The new age of today is at work on a new human type.
Men and women are to be more healthy, stronger: there is a new feeling of life, a new joy in life.
Never was humanity in its external appearance and in its frame of mind nearer to the ancient world than it is today.
This is the type of the new age.
The artist does not create for the artist: he creates for the people and we will see to it that henceforth the people will be called in to judge its art.
No one must say that the people has no understanding for a really valuable enrichment of its cultural life. Before the critics did justice to the genius of a Richard Wagner he had the people on his side, while the people has had nothing to do with so-called "modern art."
The people regarded this art as the outcome of an impudent and unashamed arrogance or of a simply shocking lack of skill; it felt that this art-stammer - these achievements which might have been produced by untalented children of from eight to ten years old - could never be valued as an expression of our own times or of the German future.
When we know today that the development of millions of years repeats itself in every individual compressed into a few decades, then this art, we realize, is not "modern"; it is on the contrary in the highest degree "archaic," far older probably than the Stone Age.
The people when it passes through these galleries will recognize in me its own spokesman and counsellor: it will draw a sigh of relief and express its glad agreement with this purification of art.
And that is decisive: an art which cannot count on the readiest and most intimate agreement of the great mass of the people, an art which must rely upon the support of small cliques, is intolerable.
Such an art does but endeavour to confuse, instead of gladly reinforcing, the sure and healthy instinct of a people.
The artist cannot stand aloof from his people.
This exhibition is but a beginning, yet the end of the artistic stultification of Germany has begun.
Now is the opportunity for youth to start its industrious apprenticeship, and when a sacred conscientiousness at last comes into its own, then I doubt not that the Almighty, from the mass of these decent creators of art, will once more raise up individuals to the eternal starry heaven of the imperishable God-favored artists of the great periods. We believe that especially today, when in so many spheres the highest individual achievements are being manifested, so also in art the highest value of personality will once again assert itself.

'Germany wants again a “German Art,” and this art shall and will be of eternal value, as are all truly creative values of a people.
Should this art, however, again lack this eternal value for our people, then indeed it will mean that it also has no higher value today
When, therefore, the cornerstone of this building was laid, it was with the intention of constructing a temple, not for a so-called modern art, but for a true and everlasting German art, that is, better still, a House for the art of the German people.
It is therefore imperative for the artist to erect monuments, not so much to a period, but to his people.
For time is changeable, years come and go.
Anything born of and thriving on a certain epoch alone would perish with it.
And not only all which had been created before us would fall victim to this mortality, but also what is being created today or will be created in the future.
But the National-Socialists know of only one mortality, and that is the mortality of the people itself:
As long as a people exists, however, it is the fixed pole in the flight of fleeting appearances.
It is the quality of being and lasting permanence.
And, indeed, for this reason, art as an expression of the essence of this being, is an eternal monument.'
Adolf Hitler



© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
HITLER AND THE ARTS

“After being appointed chancellor in 1933 the first building Hitler had erected was not a monument to his own triumph but a massive art gallery.”
Hitler’s complaint to his field commanders after Winston Churchill refused peace terms in 1940 was, “It is a pity that I have to wage war on account of that drunk instead of serving the works of peace.”
The tasks of peace—grand architectural renovations and the promotion of German culture—were uppermost in Hitler’s mind, as Hermann Giesler has shown us throughout his memoir.
But not only Giesler.
After pondering the matter for 20 years in Spandau prison, Hitler’s other architect Albert Speer concluded that Hitler was always and with his whole heart an artist.
Hitler’s secretary Christa Schroeder recalled that his non-military conversation turned more and more to the arts.
Josef Goebbels provides numerous examples in his diaries.
In Jan.1942, after a long discussion with Hitler, he wrote: “The intensity of the Fuehrer’s longing for music, theatre and cultural relaxation is enormous.
The life he was then leading was “culturally empty,” the Fuehrer had told him, and he looked forward to the war’s end when he would “compensate for this by a dedication stronger than ever to the more beautiful sides of life.” 
Giesler, in charge of designing Hitler’s retirement home overlooking Linz. Hitler envisioned discussion of art, philosophy and matters of importance to the future of Europe by those invited to his home. “Ms. Braun,” whom he would marry when he retired after the war, would be the lady of the house.
Hitler was no dilettante.
His knowledge of architecture was enormous, along with many other subjects.
He had supported himself from 1909-1913 in Vienna and Munich by drawing and painting architectural landmarks in watercolor and oil, selling them through dealers.
His Munich landlord, Herr Popp, said he often found his lodger reading the works of Schopenhauer and Plato, along with war histories.
Throughout the First World War Hitler carried with him a pocket edition of Schopenhauer's 'The World as Will and Idea'.
His enthusiasm for Richard Wagner’s music began as a 12 year-old boy attending a performance of Lohengrin in Linz.
He’s said to have seen 'Tristan und Isolde' up to 40 times and 'Der Meistersinger' one hundred times. He could hum or whistle all its themes.
In 1942, Hitler became equally enthused about Austrian-born composer Anton Bruckner.
He considered Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony the equivalent of Beethoven’s Ninth.
Always generous with his own funds, Hitler personally financed a centre of Bruckner studies, had his organ repaired and added to his library; he designed a monument in his honour in Linz; endowed a Bruckner Orchestra and subsidized the publication of the composer’s original scores.
No other leader of the time came close to that dedication. “Stalin as well as Lenin, Mussolini, Mao Tse-tung and their ilk … had never set foot in an art gallery.”
While ostensibly better-educated, Churchill, Roosevelt and Wilson were also far below Hitler’s level of cultural awareness.
It turns out, by a close study of Adolf Hitler’s biographers, memoirists, associates and the record itself, that his idea of national greatness was only fulfilled in a true national art and culture—reminiscent of the ancient Greeks he admired, wherein magnificent physical beauty combines with a brilliant mind and noble soul.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013


click here for more information about Adolf Hitler
and
'Hitler my young Friend' by August Kubizek


________________________


F I N E   A R T




'French Farm-house' - Adolf Hitler





'Kirche in Ardoye in Flandern' - Adolf Hitler






'Zeichnung Hund' - Adolf Hitler






'Karl's Church in Winter' - Adolf Hitler





'BAUERNFAMILIE'  - (Farming Family)
Adolf  Wissel





'ERBHOFBAUER'
(Farmstead Peasant)






Leopold Schmutzler - 'Working Maidens'




'TWO BOYS IN A SAILBOAT'
(Summer Scene)
Craigher




'DIE RAST DER DIANA' - (DIANA'S  REST) - 1940
Ivo  Saliger - 1894 - 1987

Ivo Saliger was known both for his original etchings and paintings.
He moved to Vienna in 1908 and studied painting and etching techniques at the Academy of Vienna, under some of Austria’s finest artists such as Rudolf Jettmar, Ludwig Michalek and Ferdinand Schmutzer.
Saliger completed his studies at the Academie Moderne, in Paris.
He returned to Vienna in 1920 to assume the post of professor of art at the Academy.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, Ivo Saliger developed strong Art Deco elements within his art.
When German soldiers marched into Austria, Saliger, like so many other artists, began to paint images in support of the Third Reich.
His paintings were frequently exhibited at the ‘Great German Art Exhibition’ held annually in Munich between 1937 and 1944.
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Saliger continued to paint until his death in 1987.





'FRAUENAKTEN' - (Female Nudes)
Ivo  Saliger - 1894 - 1987




'LIEGENDER FRAUENAKT' - (Reclining Female Nude)
Ernst Liebermann




'EINKLANG' - (HARMONY) - 1941
Ivo  Saliger - 1894 - 1987




'THE  FOUR  ELEMENTS'
Adolf  Ziegler  -  (1892-1959)

Adolf Ziegler (Bremen, 16 October 1892 – Varnhalt, today Baden-Baden, 18 September 1959) was a German painter and politician.
He was tasked by the Nazi Party to oversee the purging of "Degenerate art", made by most of the German modern artists. He was the favoured painter of Hitler.
Hitler commented that Ziegler's work was akin to that of perfection.
After 1945  Ziegler was unable to revive his career, and he lived quietly in the village of Varnhalt near Baden-Baden for the last years of his life.
He died in September 1959, at the age of sixty-seven.




THE  FOUR  SEASONS  'IN  SITU'  -  ADOLF  HITLER'S  STUDY




'EVA BRAUN'
(Nude Study - Artist Unknown)



click here for more information about Eva Braun - 
her biography and rare photos





'DIE  HALSKETTE'  -  (The Necklace)  -  1942
Sepp Hilz




'BAUERLICHE  VENUS'  -  (Peasant Venus)  -  1939
Sepp Hilz  -  (1906-1967)


Sepp Hilz was born in  Northern Bavaria on October 22, 1906.
Sepp began his work as a painter in his studio in Munich working mainly for regional exhibitions and displays and continued to copy the works of the great Flemish painters like Rembrandt, Vermeer, van Delft and Brouwer.  Until the end of the 1920's Sepp dedicated himself to his studies and paintings of churches in the Upper Bavarian country.In 1928, he went back to his native town to work for his father again.  He married Erika von Satzenhoven who, after a year, presented him with a son they called Benno.
Together with other artists, he became the inspirer of the cultural life of Bad Aibling with his paintings in bauernmalerei style.
Starting in 1930 Hilz painted many rural scenes in the style of Wilhelm Leibl (a German painter 1844-1900) which not only earned him the name “Bauernmaler” (the painter of peasants).From 1938 to 1944 he presented twenty-two works at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst and at the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung , amongst which was exhibited the famous triptych“Bäuerliche Trilogie” in 1941. After the war, Hilz, notwithstanding the many difficulties, goes back to work and restores the paintings in the churches of  Schäflarn, Schlehdorf am Kochelsee, Obholting, Baumburg (the cloister of the church Altenmarkt an der Alz) and the Franciscan church of Bad Tölz.Sepp Hilz died in Bad Aibling on September 30, 1967 - five months before his second wife’s death.




'EITELKEIT'  -  (Vanity)  -  1940
Sepp Hilz




Sepp Hilz





'DER FÜHRER SPRICHT'
Paul Matthias Padua



'9th NOVEMBER 1923'



 "Der Bannerträger"
Hubert Lanzinger



© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013


_________________________________________

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
for that perfect body you have always dreamed of go to

Everything you need to know is there - choosing a gym, ultimate nutrition, what to wear in the gym and the pool, principles of aerobic and resistance training, exercise schedules and much more !
the ultimate advice from a qualified physical education instructor.
also see fitness for you on Picasa Web Albums
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013


Just some of the boys from the 'Fitness for You' Muscle Gallery