Holiday in Ruhpolding

      
HOLIDAY IN RUHPOLDING

Peter was very excited, although he had little idea of where Bavaria was, or what the place was like.

1950s British Passport
Soon, however, the excitement was forgotten, and it was only with a trip to the photographers on Hounslow Broadway, opposite the Bus Garage, in the early summer, that the enthusiasm was rekindled.
The photographs were for a new passport, and in those days British Pasports were 'real passports', with hard covers of a royal blue, buitfully embossed and gilded with the Royal Arms.
The next step was John Crawford'  visit to the Bank Manager, armed with his passport, in order to change some english sterling into Deutschmarks.
Then it was time for new clothes, with shirts and shorts for Peter, in Jane's favourite pale green.
Then the school Summer Holidays came in August, and it was time to go on holiday.
Now Peter had been abroad before - to France - and by air - which was a real adventure in the 1950s, but only to Calais and Paris.
Bavaria was like Ruritania, however, a strange place in the middle of Europe, high among the mountain peaks - so this was to be a real adventure !

The Prisoner of Zenda
And Peter had seen the prisoner of Zenda a few years earlier - one of his favourite films - and also had a copy of the book - so he knew what to expect The Prisoner of Zenda (1952)—Starring Stewart Granger, Deborah Kerr, Louis Calhern, Jane Greer, Lewis Stone, Robert Douglas, James Mason and Robert Coote. It was adapted by Edward Rose, (dramatization) Wells Root, John L. Balderston, Noel Langley and Donald Ogden Stewart (additional dialogue, originally uncredited). It was directed by Richard Thorpe.It is a shot-for-shot copy of the 1937 film, the only difference being that it was made in Technicolor.



THE HOLIDAY

But now - on with the story !

Harwich - Gateway to Europe
So - the summer came, and with it for Peter, came the summer holidays from school.
And the holiday began, but not with a trip to the airport - currency restrictions made that too expensive - so it was off to Liverpool Street station, and a train to the coast and a ferry to the continent.


Pullman
Liverpool Street Station - London
Then it was a journey by train across Europe - and a long journey  - and this was the most exciting adventure that Peter had ever had - apart from flying to France perhaps.
And this involved a crossing of the North Seas by British Rail Ferries (later known as Sealink) and then the train journey provided by a company called 'Blue Cars' - which was a reference to the Pullman cars.




Liverpool Street to Harwich
Arriving at Harwich
Liverpool Street station, in London, was still a place of steam and noise, as the boilers of huge locomotives were fired up in preparation for their journeys.
For Peter, this was the start of a momentous journey, and it was also Peter's first journey on a Pullman train - where you actually slept on the train.
But there was no sleeping to begin with - because first there was a rather boring journey to Harwich.


SS Amsterdam
British Railways Logo - 1950s
As the train steamed into Parkston Quay in Harwich the atmosphere changed completely.
There is nothing like the crisp smell of sea salt and marine diesel, which for many years, for Peter, meant the beginning of an adventure.




Hoek van Holland - 1950s
The next step was to board the SS Amsterdam, one of British Rail's newest ships, and then settle down and prepare for the sea crossing.
This was a daytime crossing, for the trip from Harwich to the Hoek van Holland.
The crossing in those days, took about seven hours, and the SS Amsterdam would reach the Hoek in the late afternoon.
After a good look round the ship, Peter, Jane and John Decided to have lunch.


Dining on Board the Ferry
The SS Amsterdam was a large, new ferry, and had a magnificent dining salon.
Arrival at the Hoek involved disembarkation and customs - remember that this was in that golden time before the European Common Market, and border restrictions were scrupulously enforced on the continent by imposing and intimidating customs officers, in resplendent uniforms, and carrying side-arms.
Jane, John and Peter then re-boarded the Pullman, and prepared for the journey across Europe.
British Railways Dining Car
The Train started its journey, passing through the incredibly flat countryside, dotted with the inevitable windmills, which reminded Peter of the Norfolk Broads.
By then it was getting dark so, before retiring for the night, Peter Jane and John decided to go to the restaurant car for dinner.
After dinner it was time to go to bed - and for Peter, the first 'bed-time' on a train.
Obviously Peter found it difficult to sleep. Obviously there was the noise and the movement, and the dim blue light that remained on in the compartment throughout the night - but Peter also had the urge to peek out through the curtains to glimpse the twinkling lights of the occasional town, village and station.
Then came the oblivion of sleep.......
Now while Peter is sleeping we may consider the strange circumstances of this holiday to Bavaria - or Bayern as it is called in German.
We have already explained how Jane had an antipathy to Germans, and in particular Herr Hitler, as a result of what had happened during the war.
Well now we must consider a little of the recent history of the particular alpine resort that Peter's parents had decided to use as the base for their first continental holiday.
Remember as you read this that there were many other places in Germany that they could have visited, and more significantly many places in Europe other than Germany.
We mention this because Ruhpolding had some rather interesting recent history.


Ruhpolding Hauptplatz
Celebration of the Austrian Anchluß
Ruhpolding Hauptplatz Feb 1936
We know that in 1938, a year after Jane and John married, and the year of the Anchluß  that there was a celebration in the main square in Ruhpolding.
We know this because there is photographic evidence.
Of course, everybody that Peter ever met in Germany, (with the exception of Adolf Lördermann, who we will meet later), made it very clear that they had nothing to do with the National Socialists or the Third Reich, so it's interesting to see evidence of the villagers giving enthusiastic Nazi salutes - and it makes one wonder just who were all those enthusiastic people in the Nürnberg Stadium, (remember Nürnberg is also in Bavaria).


Finnish SS - Ruhpolding
23rd of May 1943
Equally, later in the war the Finnish SS were stationed in Ruhpolding.
That is as it may be, but even more interesting is the link that Ruhpolding had with the highest echelons of the Third Reich hierarchy.
While, in the 1950s, most of the leaders of the Reich and individuals closely associated with Hitler were either dead, or had gone into hiding, usually in some obscure South American state, some of those closest to Jane's much reviled Herr Hitler were actually living in Ruhpolding.


Family of Eva Braun
We are referring  of course, to Adolf Hitler's in-laws.
Yes, - members of Eva Braun's family were living openly and unmolested in Ruhpolding.
And these people were pillars of the community, and were regular visitors to the local Gasthof where, in fact, they met Peter, Jane and John.
So this makes this holiday very strange.

Friedrich Braun (also known as Fritz; a School teacher; - Parents: Phillip Braun, Christina Heyser)
Birth: Neckargmund, Germany - Death: 22 January 1964 in Ruhpolding, Bavaria, Germany
Franziska Kronberger - Birth:1880 - Death: January 1976 in Ruhpolding, Bavaria, Germany
Occupation: Seamstress ; Father: Unidentified Veterinarian b: in of Oberpfalz, Germany
Their Children: - Eva Anna Paula Braun b: 6 February 1912 in Munich, Bavaria, Germany
Margarete (Gretl) Braun (married SS-Gruppenführer Hans Georg Otto Hermann Fegelein 3 June 1944. born 30 October 1906 in Ansbach, Germany, and died 29 April 1945 in Berlin, Germany.

And then, to cap it all, John arranged for a visit to Berchtesgaden, the ruins of the Berghof, the  Gasthof Zum Türken, and the Adlerhorst (Eagles Nest) on the Kehlstein.
But, of course, while Peter slept he knew nothing of this.
So back to the story ...
Chiemgau Alps - Bayern
Peter woke up early - he could see the sun shining brilliantly through the curtains.
Bleary eyed, Peter opened the curtain just a little, only to get one of the biggest shocks of his life.
Outside the window, above the passing forest were huge, snow-capped mountains.
So then, after dressing, Peter, Jane and John went to the dining car for breakfast, and this would be the last English meal that Peter would have for two weeks.
So it was breakfast while watching the beautiful Bavarian Alps.
By the time breakfast was over the final destination was approaching, and so it was time to return to the compartment and get ready to leave the train.

RUHPOLDING

Ruhpolding Bahnhof - Bayern
Tirolean Band - Ruhpolding Bahnhof
And so the final destination came into view.
A tiny little station, without a proper platform, (on the continent then you either climbed up or climbed down to enter or leave a train).
And on the low platform were a group of Bavarian villagers, and a Tirolean Band.
There, amid the raucous sounds of the 'oompah' band, and the chatter of the villagers, was a very small, dark haired woman, probably in her sixties.


She was looking for 'Herr Crawford', because this was to be our hostess for the next two weeks.
This was Frau Agnes - a sweet little old lady, with dark, 'frizzy' hair, who was dragging a small trolley.
She insisted on loading the cases onto the little trolley, despite John's protestations to the contrary.
She then began dragging the trolley from the station to the road, chatting away all the time in broken English, as they all made their way through the village.
Agness, as Peter learned later, had been married, but her husband, a forester, had been killed in the First World War.
Agness had then inherited a remarkably large house in the centre of the village.
What she had done during the Third Reich and the Second World War Peter never discovered, (but then that was the case with most of the people he met in Austria and Germany), but in the fifties she had supported herself by renting her spacious home to tourists.
And that, of course, is how Peter, Jane and John met her.


Die Gebrüder Grimm
To Peter, Ruhpolding was like a setting for a Brothers Grimm story.

Die Gebrüder Grimm (The BrothersGrimm) - Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who together collected folklore. They are among the most well-known storytellers of European folk tales, and their work popularized such stories as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince" (Der Froschkönig), "Hansel and Gretel" (Hänsel und Gretel), "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin" (Rumpelstilzchen), and "Snow White" (Schneewittchen). Their first collection of folk tales, Children's and Household Tales (Kinder- und Hausmärchen), was published in 1812.

Ortszentrum Ruhpolding
The quaint houses, in most case with painted stucco façades and carved wooden, flower bedecked balconies, were set in a lush landscape of pasture of gentle, green hills overlooked by some magnificent mountains.
In the centre of the town was a water trough, undoubtedly originally used for the passing dairy herds, and a strange object which reminded Peter of an Indian Totem pole indicated the various amenities of the village and the surrounding area.
There had, of course, been very little bombing during the Second World War in the rural areas of Bavaria, with the obvious exception of the Obersalzburg, and so all the houses were pristine.
It should be remembered that only fourteen years had passed since the end of the Second World War - and yet, nobody ever spoke of those years of conflict - except an Austrian taxi driver (but that story is yet to come).
And so - what do you do on holiday in the Bavarian Alps in 1959 ?
Well today, of course, there are many leisure facilities in the Chiemgau.

Ruhpolding - Lower Slopes
Chiemgau is the common name of a geographic area in Upper Bavaria. It refers to the foothills of the Alps between the rivers Inn and Traun, with lake Chiemsee at its center. The political districts that contain the Chiemgau are Rosenheim and Traunstein. Wendelstein is the name of a famous mountain close by but not strictly in the Chiemgau, while Kampenwand is actually the most inviting peak south of Chiemsee.

In 1959, however, the only option was hiking, or more precisely, walking.
But it was, (and still is), a wonderful place to walk.
And the walking did not require any mountaineering skills.
The foot-hills of the Bavarian Alps are gently sloping, and covered in deeply shaded pine forests.

'Wanderkarte' - Ruhpolding
If, however, one longed for the mountain  summits, then there was always a cable-car to take you gently the the cloud-capped silence of the majestic peaks.
The Chiemgau, in the 1950s, was predominately a tourist destination for people from Germany, Austria and Holland, and these tourists were often inveterate hikers.
For their benefit and convenience markers had been inscribed on trees and rocks  -  colour-coded - to indicate various popular trails through the wooded hills.
And so it was possible to go for long walks through the forest without any fear of getting lost.
So the first thing that John bought was a 'Wanderkarte' - a Walking Map of the area around Ruhpolding.




MARIA ECK

Armed with their map, Peter, Jane and John set of, for the first few days, exploring the environs of the village.
The longest 'hike' they made was to Maria Eck.
And what is at Maria Eck ?


Pilgrimage Church of Maria Eck
Pilgrimage Church of Maria Eck
Well - very little - but there is a beautiful pilgrimage church - a little gem, hidden in the depth of the forest.
The establishment of the pilgrimage church of Maria Eck goes back to an old legend.
A lumberjack is said to have repeatedly seen a light phenomena in this area, and subsequently the local people built a wooden chapel on the site of the .unexplained phenomena.
The first small chapel on the site of the present church was built in 1618-35 by the monastery Seeon.
In 1803, the pilgrimage church of Maria Eck, in the process of secularization, was dissolved, and much of the interior of the church was either sold or destroyed.
In 1810, the church, and the surrounding land, was auctioned to private individuals, but the auction was actualy cancelled a month later.
The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a superb example of South German Baroque.
When Peter, Jane and John entered the church they were totally overwhelmed.
Up until that time they had not been inside any Bavarian churches, and they were amazed at the wealth of gold and colour inside the church.
The outside of the church was plain and simple, but the interior was a riot of gold leafed plaster, and columns painted to imitate all kinds of rare and exotic coloured marbles.
In addition there were Baroque statues and paintings representing scenes from the bible and local saints.

ROSENHEIM AND TRAUNSTEIN

Peter was very surprised at how adventurous Jane and John were when they were on holiday.
After Maria Eck ther were other expeditions.
These were by train, as this area of Bavaria was well served by train-lines.
There were trips to Rosenheim and Traunstein.


Rosenheim
Rosenheim is located in the centre of the district of Rosenheim (Upper Bavaria), and is also the seat of administration of this region.
It is located on the west bank of the river Inn, at the confluence of the rivers Inn and Mangfall, in the Bavarian Alpine Foreland.
It is the third largest city in Upper Bavaria with over 61,000 inhabitants and one of 23 administrative centres in Bavaria.
Rosenheim is therefore the economic centre and the busiest place in the region.
At the beginning of the 20th century,Rosenheim had nine breweries which are still preserved in the names of some restaurants (Duschl-, Hof-, Mail-, Pernloher-, Stern-, Weißbräu). The only survivors being "Auerbräu" and "Flötzinger Bräu" and supply, among others, the "Märzenbier" for the "Rosenheimer Herbstfest", as well as the Bierbichler Weißbräu.
Traunstein is the administrative center of a district by the same name.
It is situated at the heart of a region called Chiemgau, approximately 11 km east of Lake Chiemsee between Munich and Salzburg, 15 km north of the Alps, and 30 km west of Salzburg. 
Salt production, as a result of the construction of the brine pipeline from Bad Reichenhall from 1616 to 1619 by the master builder of the court, Hans Reiffenstuel, was for a long time the most important industrial branch, and brought an enormous wealth to the town.
Oddly, both towns had a close association with Adolf Hitler and National Socailism.


Rosenheim - the banner reads
'Here Jews are not wanted'
Hitler held a speech in the Hofbräuhaus, in Rosenheim, on May 2, 1920.
Just after the first NSDAP-division outside München was founded, Hitler spoke in Rosenheim again (on July 21, 1920).
He also spoke in the Hofbräusaal on June 17, 1920.


Pernlohnerkellern.
On August 6, 1920 Hitler spoke at the Pernlohnerkellern.
On the 26th of that month and year he also spoke in Rosenheim.
Hitler spoke at the Flötzingersaal on April 21, 1921.
He celebrated his birthday here on April 20, 1925.
The first time Hitler spoke in public after a critical throat operation was during a mass meeting in Rosenheim on August 11, 1935, in the Flötzingersaal.
Traunstein
Located near the Austrian border in Bavaria, Germany's largely rural and most politically conservative region, Traunstein was for years a stronghold of political parties tied to Catholicism, but the Nazi Party did well here in its formative years in the 1920s because of its opposition to the Versailles Treaty that enshrined Germany's humiliating defeat at the end of World War I, and its perceived championing of nationalist and rural values.


Adolf Hitler - marked with an X
Traunstein
Adolf Hitler was guarding Russian prisoners of war at Traunstein camp after the first world war.
After returning to München, he became a part of the local army organization, which consisted of a group of people (the Thule Gesellschaft) who did not want the soldiers to turn towards communism or pacifism.
He had to influence the returning soldiers to become anti-socialist patriots.
His first political speeches were held for the sodiers in Lechfeld, nearby.
Later on Hitler held three speeches in Traunstein, the first one on 8 December 1922, in a crowded hall of the gym-club.

THE RAUSCHBERG


Peter's first trip up a mountain was to the Rauschberg - the mountain that overlooks Ruhpolding.
A short trip by bus was needed to arrive at the valley station of the Rauschbergbahn.
From there it was just a matter of buying a ticket and getting on the cable car.
In the twenty-first century it require a long wait on a fine day to get onto the cable car.
In the nineteen-fifties it was just a matter of stepping on.
The Rauschbergbahn takes the ascent in one run, with no middle station.




Rauschbergbahn
Rauschberg Lake
The Rauschberg is 1,671 m (5,482 ft) high, and on the summit there is a restaurant and viewing galeries.
The views from the summit are, not surprisingly, breathtaking, and for a boy who had previously been frightened of climbing the stairs in a double-decker bus, Peter had no problem with the height.
What he did find most noticeable was the strange silence that pervades the atmosphere on the mountain peaks.
One image taht always haunted Peter after his holiday was that of the Rauschberg lake - a tiny little lake near the valley station, which on a fine day sparkles like a briliant turquoise jewel, as one descends in the Rauschbergbahn car from the heights.

BERCHTESGADEN


Berchtesgaden 
Going further afield, John then proposed a trip to Berchtesgaden - of all places !
Now for the few that do not know, Berchtesgaden was Hitler's favourite town in Germany, and the place where he had his famous mountain retreat - the Berghof.


Adolf Hitler at the Berghof
The trip to Berchtesgaden involved a train ride through the valleys.
Berchtesgaden was a beautiful little place - more a village that a town - full of people pretending that they had never heard of Hitler - (remember that this was only fourteen years after the end of the second world war).


The Watzmann
Berchtesgaden is located in the south district of Berchtesgadener Land in Bavaria, near the border with Austria, some 30 km south of Salzburg and 180 km southeast of Munich.
Berchtesgaden is often associated with the Watzmann, at 2,713 m the third-highest mountain in Germany (after Zugspitze and Hochwanner), which is renowned in the rock climbing community for its Ostwand (East Face), and a deep glacial lake by the name of Königssee (5.2 km²). Another notable peak is the Kehlstein mountain (1,835 m) with its Kehlsteinhaus (Eagle's Nest), which offers spectacular views to its visitors.




Lockstein
'Sonnenhauesl'
Hitler's involvement with Berchtesgaden began with his friendship with Dietrich Eckart - the dramatist - who had a home called the 'Sonnenhauesl', or as Hitler called it, the "Sonnenkopfl," at Lockstein.
Subsequently, Hitler rented 'Haus Wachenfeld', a small vacation villa across the valley from Mount Untersberg, for four years.




'Haus Wachenfeld',
The Berghof
In 1932, with proceeds earned from royalties from 'Mein Kampf', that Adolf Hitler purchased 'Haus Wachenfeld', which would later be known as the 'Berghof'.
Some typical Third Reich buildings which remained in Berchtesgaden in the ninetee-fifties included the railway station, that had a reception area for Hitler and his guests, and the post office next to the railway station.
The Berchtesgadener Hof Hotel was a hotel where famous visitors stayed, such as Eva Braun, Erwin Rommel, Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler, as well as Neville Chamberlain and David Lloyd George.
(The hotel was demolished in 2006).
Much to Peter's disappointment there was nothing left of the Berghof, because, somewhat like the Berchtesgadener Hof Hotel, it had been demolished by the American Army in 1945.
Apparently the Americans were afraid that the Berghof would become a shrine to Hitler's memory.
Oddly enough, however, the Americans decided not to demolish Htler's other house, which was situated on the Kehlstein summit, known as the 'Kehlsteinhaus' or 'Adlerhorst' (Eagle's nest), which subsequently did become a shrine to Hitler's memory.


Jennerbahn
Jennerbahn
Now the great thing about Berchtesgaden, for Peter anyway, was the fact that there was a 'chair-lift' from the valley to the summit of the Jenner Berg.
This was not like the Rauchberg, with a single cable and an large, enclosed car.
Instead it was a cable on a series of supports, with a number of small, enclosed cars, each one looking, to Peter, suspiciously like little UFOs.





click here for Peter's Biography

'Peter - the early years'

Troost and Speer - Architects to the Führer


T R O O S T  A N D  S P E E R - A R C H I T E C T S   T O  T H E  F Ü H R E R


 
 
At the 1933 Nürnberg Reichsparteitag, the new Chancellor, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the dawn of an era of 'New Art' - and instituted the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture) to oversee the cultural life of Das Dritte Reich, (the Third Reich).
The Reichskulturkammer was headed by Dr. Paul Joseph Göbbels.
The Reichskulturkammer was to control all aspects of culture, and this included the fine arts, applied arts,  industrial design, sculpture, architecture and film.

'Germany wants again a “German Art,” and this art shall and will be of eternal value, as are all truly creative values of a people.
Should this art, however, again lack this eternal value for our people, then indeed it will mean that it also has no higher value today
When, therefore, the cornerstone of this building was laid, it was with the intention of constructing a temple, not for a so-called modern art, but for a true and everlasting German art, that is, better still, a House for the art of the German people.
It is therefore imperative for the artist to erect monuments, not so much to a period, but to his people.
For time is changeable, years come and go.
Anything born of and thriving on a certain epoch alone would perish with it.
And not only all which had been created before us would fall victim to this mortality, but also what is being created today or will be created in the future.
But the National-Socialists know of only one mortality, and that is the mortality of the people itself:
As long as a people exists, however, it is the fixed pole in the flight of fleeting appearances.
It is the quality of being and lasting permanence.
And, indeed, for this reason, art as an expression of the essence of this being, is an eternal monument.'
Adolf Hitler

T R O O S T  A N D  S P E E R - A R C H I T E C T S   T O  T H E  F Ü H R E R


Hitler appreciated the neo-classical  architects of the 19th century such as Gottfried Semper, who built the Dresden Opera House, the Picture Gallery in Dresden, the court museums in Vienna and Theophil Freiherr von Hansen, who designed several buildings in Athens in 1840. He also admired the neo-baroque the Palais Garnier, home of the Paris Opera, and the neo-classical Law Courts of Brussels by the architect Poelaert.
Ultimately, he was always drawn back to inflated neo-baroque such as Kaiser Wilhelm II had fostered, through his court architect Ernst von Ihne.
Thus, in the realm of architecture, as in painting and sculpture, Hitler saw his ideal in the world of his youth: the world of 1880 to 1910, which stamped its imprint on his artistic taste as on his political and ideological conceptions.
The Führer did not have one particular style; there was no official architecture of the Reich, only the neoclassical baseline that was enlarged, multiplied, altered and exaggerated.
Hitler appreciated the permanent qualities of the classical style as it had a relationship between the Dorians and his own Germanic world.

P A U L   L U D W I G   T R O O S T

Paul Ludwig Troost (August 17, 1878 – March 21, 1934), born in Elberfeld, was a German architect.
An extremely tall, spare-looking, reserved Westphalian with a close-shaven head, Troost belonged to a school of architects, Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius who, even before 1914, reacted sharply against the highly ornamental Jugendstil and advocated a restrained, lean architectural approach, almost devoid of ornament.
Troost graduated from designing steamship décor before World War I, and the fittings for showy transatlantic liners like the Europa, to a style that combined Spartan traditionalism with elements of modernity.
Although, before 1933 he did not belong to the leading group of German architects, he became Hitler's foremost architect whose neo-classical style became for a time the official architecture of the Third Reich.
In the autumn of 1933, he was commissioned to rebuild and refurnish the Chancellery residence in Berlin.
Along with other architects, Troost planned and built State and municipal edifices throughout the country, including new administrative offices, social buildings for workers and bridges across the main highways.
One of the many structures he planned before his death was the House of German Art in Munich, intended to be a great temple for a "true, eternal art of the German people".
It was a good example of the classical forms in monumental public buildings during the Third Reich, though subsequently Hitler moved away from the more restrained style of Troost, reverting to the imperial grandeur that he had admired in the Vienna Ringstraße of his youth.
Hitler's relationship to Troost was that of a pupil to an admired teacher.

According to Albert Speer, who later became Hitler's favorite architect, the Führer would impatiently greet Troost with the words: "I can't wait, Herr Professor. Is there anything new? Let's see it!" Troost would then lay out his latest plans and sketches.
Hitler frequently declared, according to Speer, that "he first learned what architecture was from Troost"'.
The architect's death on March 21, 1934, after a severe illness, was a painful blow, but Hitler remained close to his widow Gerdy Troost, whose architectural taste frequently coincided with his own, which made her (in Speer's words) "a kind of arbiter of art in Munich."
Troost was buried in the "Nordfriedhof" Cemetery (North Cemetery) in Munich.
The gravestone (see above left) still survives although the family name has been removed.
Hitler posthumously awarded Troost the German National Prize for Art and Science in 1936.






FÜHRERBAU - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost

The Fuehrerbau, on the Königsplatz in Munich, was built from 1933 to 1937 by the architect Paul Ludwig Troost.
The first plans for the buildings date from the year 1931.
It was completed only three years after the death of Professor Troost by Leonhard Gall.
The building was used as the national administrative centre for the NSDAP.





GRAND STAIRCASE
FÜHRERBAU - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost







ADOLF HITLER'S STUDY
FÜHRERBAU - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost






MAIN CORRIDOR
FÜHRERBAU - KÖNIGSPLATZ  MÜNCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost






EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost

The Ehrentempel ("honor temples") were two structures in Munich, designed by Professor Paul  Ludwig Troost, and erected by the German Government in 1935, housing the sacrophagi of the sixteen members of the party who had been killed in the failed Beer hall putsch.
The Ehrentempel was made of limestone except for its roof which was made of steel and concrete with etched glass mosaics.
The pedestals of the temples were seventy feet wide.
The columns of the structures each extended twenty-three feet. The combined weight of the sacrophagi was over 2,900 pounds.
The following martyrs of the National Socialis German Workers Party were interred in the Ehrentempel:

Felix Alfarth, Andreas Bauriedl, Theodor Casella, William Ehrlich, Martin Faust,
Anton Hechenberger, Oskar Körner, Karl Kuhn, Karl Laforce, Kurt Neubauer,
Klaus von Pape,Theodor von der Pfordten, Johann Rickmers,Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, Lorenz Ritter von Stransky, Wilhelm Wolf
Adolf Wagner (buried in the grass mound between steps in 1944)





EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost







EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost




EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost






EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost







EHRENTEMPEL - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
(Tag Der Deutschen Kunst - Day of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost







EHRENTEMPEL AT DUSK - KÖNIGSPLATZ  NCHEN
Paul Ludwig Troost





DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
(The House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost








DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
(The House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost







DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
(The House of German Art)
Paul Ludwig Troost





DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
Paul Ludwig Troost




DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
Paul Ludwig Troost







DAS HAUS DER DEUTSCHEN KUNST
Paul Ludwig Troost









A L B E R T   S P E E R





Albert Speer, born Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect.
Speer was Adolf Hitler's chief architect before assuming ministerial office. 
Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931, launching him on a political and governmental career which lasted fourteen years. His architectural skills made him increasingly prominent within the Party and he became a member of Hitler's inner circle.
Hitler commissioned him to design and construct a number of structures, including the Reich Chancellery and the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg where Party rallies were held. Speer also made plans to reconstruct Berlin on a grand scale, with huge buildings, wide boulevards, and a reorganized transportation system.
Speer was born in Mannheim, into a wealthy middle class family.
Speer was active in sports, taking up skiing and mountaineering.
Speer followed in the footsteps of his father and grandfather and studied architecture.
Speer began his architectural studies at the University of Karlsruhe.
In 1924 he transferred to the Technical University of Munich.
In 1925 he transferred again, this time to the Technical University of Berlin where he studied under Heinrich Tessenow, whom Speer greatly admired.
After passing his exams in 1927, Speer became Tessenow's assistant, a high honor for a man of 22.
As such, Speer taught some of Tessenow's classes while continuing his own postgraduate studies.
In Munich, and continuing in Berlin, Speer began a close friendship, ultimately spanning over 50 years, with Rudolf Wolters, who also studied under Tessenow.
In mid-1922, Speer began courting Margarete (Margret) Weber (1905–1987).
The two married in Berlin on August 28, 1928.
In 1931, Speer surrendered his position as Tessenow's assistant, hoping to use his father's connections to get commissions.
In July 1932, the Speers visited Berlin to help out the Party prior to the Reichstag elections. While they were there, Hanke recommended the young architect to Goebbels to help renovate the Party's Berlin headquarters.


Speer, who had been about to leave with his wife for a vacation in East Prussia, agreed to do the work.
When the commission was completed, Speer returned to Mannheim and remained there as Hitler took office in January 1933.
After the Nazis took control, Hanke recalled Speer to Berlin. Goebbels, the new Propaganda Minister, commissioned Speer to renovate his Ministry's building on Wilhelmplatz.
Speer also designed the 1933 May Day commemoration in Berlin.
Speer's next major assignment was as liaison to the Berlin building trades for Paul Troost's renovation of the Chancellery.
As Chancellor, Hitler had a residence in the building and came by every day to be briefed by Speer and the building supervisor on the progress of the renovations.
After one of these briefings, Hitler invited Speer to lunch.

Hitler evinced considerable interest in Speer during the luncheon, and later told Speer that he had been looking for a young architect capable of carrying out his architectural dreams for the new Germany.
Speer quickly became part of Hitler's inner circle..
The two men found much in common: Hitler spoke of Speer as a "kindred spirit" for whom he had always maintained "the warmest human feelings".
The young, ambitious architect was dazzled by his rapid rise and close proximity to Hitler, which guaranteed him a flood of commissions from the government and from the highest ranks of the Party.

When Troost died on January 21, 1934, Speer effectively replaced him as the Party's chief architect. Hitler appointed Speer as head of the Chief Office for Construction, which placed him nominally on Hess's staff.[34]
One of Speer's first commissions after Troost's death was the Zeppelinfeld stadium—the Nürnberg parade grounds seen in Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda masterpiece Triumph of the Will. This huge work was capable of holding 340,000 people.
The tribune was influenced by the Pergamon Altar in Anatolia, but was magnified to an enormous scale.
Speer surrounded the site with 130 anti-aircraft searchlights. This created the effect of a "cathedral of light" or, as it was called by British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson, a "cathedral of ice".
Nürnberg was to be the site of many more official Nazi buildings, most of which were never built; for example, the German Stadium would have accommodated 400,000 spectators, while an even larger rally ground would have held half a million Nazis.
While planning these structures, Speer invented the concept of "ruin value": that major buildings should be constructed in such a way that they would leave aesthetically pleasing ruins for thousands of years into the future.
Such ruins would be a testament to the greatness of the Third Reich, just as ancient Greek or Roman ruins were symbols of the greatness of those civilizations.
Hitler enthusiastically embraced this concept, and ordered that all the Reich's important buildings be constructed in accord with it.
In 1937, Hitler appointed Speer as General Building Inspector for the Reich Capital with the rank of undersecretary of state in the Reich government.
The position carried with it extraordinary powers over the Berlin city government and made Speer answerable to Hitler alone.

Hitler ordered Speer to make plans to rebuild Berlin.
The plans centered on a three-mile long grand boulevard running from north to south, which Speer called the Prachtstrasse, or Street of Magnificence; he also referred to it as the "North-South Axis".
At the north end of the boulevard, Speer planned to build the Volkshalle, a huge assembly hall with a dome which would have been over 700 feet (210 m) high, with floor space for 180,000 people.
At the southern end of the avenue would be a huge triumphal arch; it would be almost 400 feet (120 m) high, and able to fit the Arc de Triomphe inside its opening.
The outbreak of World War II in 1939 led to the postponement, and eventual abandonment, of these plans.
In January 1938, Hitler asked Speer to build a new Reich Chancellery on the same site as the existing structure, and said he needed it for urgent foreign policy reasons no later than his next New Year's reception for diplomats on January 10, 1939.



This was a huge undertaking, especially since the existing Chancellery was in full operation. Although the site could not be cleared until April, Speer was successful in building the large, impressive structure in nine months.
The structure included the "Marble Gallery": at 146 metres long, almost twice as long as the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
Speer employed thousands of workers in two shifts. Hitler, who had remained away from the project, was overwhelmed when Speer turned it over, fully furnished, two days early.
In appreciation for the architect's work on the Chancellery, Hitler awarded Speer the Nazi Golden Party Badge.


Albert Speer, Adolf Hitler & Arno Breker - Paris - June 1940











REICH ADLER
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MARMORGALERIE - BERLIN
Albert Speer


In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler officially assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year.
Hitler commented that Bismarck's Old Chancellery was "fit for a soap company" but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. It nevertheless remained his official residence with its recently refurbished representation rooms on the groundfloor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so called Führerwohnung ("Führer apartment").
Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer's disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which "will make an impression on people".
Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building.
Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock.
In the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmark, well over one billion dollars today.
In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor:
The series of rooms comprising the approach to Hitler's reception gallery were decorated with a rich variety of materials and colours and totalled 220 m (725 ft) in length.
The gallery itself was 145 m (480 ft) long. Hitler's own office was 400 square meters in size.
From the exterior, the chancellery had a stern, authoritarian appearance.
From the Wilhelmplatz, visitors would enter the Chancellery through the Court of Honour (Ehrenhof). The building's main entrance was flanked by two bronze statues by sculptor Arno Breker: "Wehrmacht" and "Partei" ("Armed Forces" and "Party").
Hitler is said to have been greatly impressed by the building and was uncharacteristically effusive with his praise for Speer, lauding the architect as a "genius".
The chancellor's immense study was a particular favourite of the dictator.
The large marble-topped table served as an important part of the Nazi leader's military headquarters, the study being used for military conferences from 1944 on. On the other hand, the Cabinet room was never used for its intended purpose.








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Reception Hall)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - DOORWAY - BERLIN
Albert Speer









NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Marquetry Panel 
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING - DOORWAY - BERLIN
Albert Speer









NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Ante Room)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Mosaic Hall)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer





NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Cabinet Room)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Reception Room)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Adolf Hitler's Private Apartment)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Main Entrance)
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Main Entrance)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Main Entrance)
Albert Speer








MAIN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer






MAIN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer







MAIN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer







The Reception Hall in the Reich's Chancellery Garden
Albert Speer








GARDEN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer






GARDEN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer






SS-'Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler' Barracks
Albert Speer






G E R M A N I A






GERMANIA
Albert Speer


Welthauptstadt Germania ("World Capital Germania") refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler's vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Albert Speer, the "first architect of the Third Reich", produced many of the plans for the rebuilt city in his capacity as overseer of the project, only a small portion of which was realized between the years 1937-1943 when construction took place.
Some projects, such as the creation of a great East-West city axis, which included broadening Charlottenburger Chaussee (today Straße des 17. Juni) and placing the Berlin victory column in the center, far away from the Reichstag, where it originally stood, succeeded.
Others, however, such as the creation of the Große Halle (Great Hall), had to be shelved owing to the beginning of war.
A great number of the old buildings in many of the planned construction areas were however demolished before the war and eventually defeat stopped the plans.
The combined name "Welthauptstadt Germania" for the project was coined by Albert Speer in his 1969 memoirs Inside the Third Reich. 







MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG - GERMANIA
Albert Speer


According to the records of Hitler's Table Talk of 8 June 1942 Hitler toyed with the idea of renaming the renewed Berlin into 'Germania', in order to give a Greater Germanic world empire a clear central point:
The term Welthauptstadt (World Capital) was already used by Hitler three months prior on the night between the 11th and 12th of March 1942 in the Wolf's Lair:
"Berlin as the World Capital will only be comparable with Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Rome! What are London and Paris compared to that!"
—Werner Jochmann: Adolf Hitler. Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941–1944, p. 318. Munich, 1980.
The title 'Welthauptstadt' was chosen because it was felt that Berlin's architecture was at that time too provincial and that there was need to put Berlin on a par with and exceed the quality of other world capitals such as London, Paris and especially Rome.





MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG - GERMANIA
Albert Speer







 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer


The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.
However, there was little about Speer's elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature, supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler's study on the garden side of the new Chancellery (see above).






 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer

Speer's Große Halle was to be the capital's most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt).
Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself.
The oculus of the building's dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian's Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.
The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). 
The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared.
The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler's tribunal.
From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.
The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff's Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.
Other features of the Volkshalle's interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian's Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side.
The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer's building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses.
The coffered dome rests on this zone. 
Hitler's aspirations to world domination and the establishment of his New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here.
External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrator (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome's lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws not the usual swastika but the globe of the Earth (Erdball).
This combination of eagle and ball was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand.
The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian's Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Hitler's world empire.
The globe on the dome's lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth.
Both mythological figures were according to Speer, chosen by Hitler himself.






GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer






ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer





ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer








ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer










ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer









ZEPPLINFELD STADIUM
Albert Speer








ZEPPLINFELD STADIUM
Albert Speer










GERMAN PAVILLION - 1937 - PARIS
Albert Speer






GERMAN PAVILLION - 1937 - PARIS
Albert Speer


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